अनुवाद Übersetzen sie
Traduisez ترجم
перевести Traduca Traduzca 翻译

Telegraph stamps of the World

Click here for a site-map.
Select currency. Default = GBP (1.0)
GB £   US $   Can $   Aus $
Euro   Other DELETE
Up a level
Argentina Bolivia Chile Columbia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Rep. Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras
Argentina Bolivia Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Rep. Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras
Up a level
Mexico Morocco Guinea Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Puerto Rico Uruguay Venezuela
Mexico Morocco Guinea Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Puerto Rico Uruguay Venezuela


- - Carlos Aristy.
- - Paul & Les Bottomley.
- - Rodney Cork.
RL - Rolf Lamprecht.
- - treasurings-jewelry

  I have revised Hiscocks' original listing, though leaving references to the original designations.  
This is largely to accommodate additions.
I have brought the prices up to date and added currency selection.
The new designations have 'RH' numbers (Revised Hiscocks) to avoid confusion.
CheckList         Setup


A 1912 list of Wireless Telegraph Stations of the World, lists surprisingly little for this area. Willemstad, Curaçao had one, and Cuba had a dozen,
but none for the Dominican Republic, Haiti or Martinique. There are similarly named lists of stations for 1906, 1908 and 1910.
Hispaniola Map

Dominican Republic.

Steve Hiscocks wrote (in 1982):
This country has the distinction of being the only country which still uses telegraph stamps today. The most recent issue was authorized by
Presidential decree in 1981. The first issue was by a French private company which was authorized to set up and run the first telegraph service
in the Republic. A reference in the American Philatelist to these being on sale at less than face value in 1890 suggests that they remained in use for
around two years at the most and that the remaining stock reached the philatelic market. It is not known how telegrams were prepaid for the
following 30 years until the issue of the first official telegraph stamps in 1920.
Full philatelic details of issues since that of 1931 have not become available in time for this edition, although it is hoped that complete data will be
available in due course. The numbers of each value issued between 1919 and 1981 are known and indicate a large usage.

My notes:
Unfortunately Steve Hiscocks did not live to produce a subsequent edition.
Notice his reference to a 1931 issue. He did not list that issue, only the similar, but different issue of 1935 (see below).
There is some disagreement about the sequence of issues. This is not helped by the almost complete absence of dateable examples.
Honduras issued stamps in 1981, and several more including a 1993 set. Hiscocks only knew of a 1934 set for Honduras.
Normally telegraph networks follow the railways, however the railways in the Dominican Republic appear to have had a slow start
The stamps of 1920 do not show railways, but instead show radiotelegraphy.


Though no specifically telegraph stamps are known for Haiti, it did have at least one National Telegraph Service and a later inland service.
Envelopes (c1895) are known in the red and blue colours of the Haitian flag, marked "Service Télégraphique de la Republique d'Haiti", with the Haitian Coat of Arms and "A Déchirer" perforated flaps :
Haiti Envelope - front   Haiti Envelope - back
Envelope, front and back, courtesy of copyright holder, Corinphila Auction (Ex. Brian Moorhouse).

Telegramme delivery forms of 1928 used in Port-Au-Prince are also known marked "Telegraphes Terrestres, Republique D'Haiti" (Formula TT 3).
Haiti Telegramme - 1 Haiti Telegramme - 2 Haiti Telegramme - 3
These all relate to the same death in the Vital family, but with some inconsistencies of filling in the date. Two are from Jacmel, the other from Petit-Goâve. The "PD" for Service is probably "Paid to Destination".
Images courtesy of Perry (dh1959 on Delcampe. Click image for listing)

Nicolas Doire of The Haiti Philatelic Society has been very helpful in gathering information on Haiti.


According to Bill Glover, in 1888, La Société Française de Télégraphes Sous-Marin had Cables laid by
CS Roddam from:
Santo Domingo, Dominican RepublicWillemstad, Curaçao 453 nm.
WillemstadLa Guaira, Venezuela 161 nm.

and by CS Westmeath from :
Santiago de CubaGuantanamo, Cuba 50 nm
Guantanamo, CubaSaint Nicholas Môle, Haiti 125 nm
St Nicholas MoleCap Haitien, Haiti 96 nm
Cap HaitienPuerto Plata, Dominican Republic 116 nm

Another cable was laid from Fort-de-France, Martinique to Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic (403 nm) in 1891.

The beginnings of telephone and telegraph service began during the dictatorship of General Ulises Heureaux
who did at least make improvements to the infrastructure of the country, including a single-track railroad linking Santiago and Puerto Plata. In 1916, at a time of chaos, the U.S. sent in a contingent of marines, who remained until 1924 when a democratically elected president (Horacio Vásquez) came to power, only to be overthrown in 1930 by Rafaél Leonides Trujillo Molina (A sergeant in the Dominican army trained by the marines) re-established dictatorship until his assassination in 1961. In 1962, Juan Bosch of the Dominican Revolutionary Party, became the new democratically elected president, but relations with Haiti became strained. Bosch was overthrown by a right-wing military coup in 1963 and armed conflict ensued. In 1965, fearing a possible Communist Dictatorship, 27,000 U.S. troops were back to 'restore order'. They installed a new president who was acceptable to the U.S. government. U.S. forces completely left in 1966.
The new president, Joaquín Balaguer, opened the country up to foreign investment (mostly sugar and tourism) while protecting state-owned industries. Due to uneven distribution of new wealth, Balaguer lost the 1978 election, but refused to step down until U.S. President Jimmy Carter brought pressure to bear.

This political turmoil, probably driven by economic challenges, appears to be reflected in the stamp issues.
I think that as stamps were required, new tenders were put out and often stamp printing changed hands.

This is here to get consistent results on different browsers.



Dominican Republic.

Private French Company (Compagnie des Telegraphes de la Republique Dominicaine).

1887 Wove paper. No watermark. Perf. 13½

Private company set
Private company set
Type 1, Private company set with some typical cancels.

RH # Hisc. Type. Description Mint Used
RH1 H1 1 25c green 20.00 6.00
RH1a -           imperf. - -
RH2 H2 1 50c yellow 5.00 8.00
RH2a -           imperf. - -
RH3 H3 1 1p brown 7.00 7.00
RH3a -           imperf. - -
RH4 H4 1 5p blue 12.00 8.00
RH4a -           imperf. - -
RH5 H5 1 10p dull vermilion 20.00 15.00
RH5a -           imperf. - -

Imperf set
Imperforate set, courtesy of Carlos Aristy. These are un-gummed, so may have been proofs.

Hiscocks added the following note:

Note. This issue is thought to have been in use for about two years at the most.


National Issues.

1920 (January) Thick wove paper. No watermark. Perf. 11½ or 12.

1920 part set
1920 part set
1920 part set
Type 2, Basic 1920 set with typical cancels.

RH # Hisc. Type. Description Mint Used
RH6 H6 2 1c green and blue 5.00 3.75
RH6a H6a           perf. 12 (1921) 7.50 5.00
RH7 H7 2 5c deep blue 8.00 2.50
RH7a H7a           perf. 12 (1921) 12.50 3.75
RH8 H8 2 10c yellow-olive 10.00 2.50
RH8a H8a           perf. 12 (1921) 12.50 3.75
RH9 H9 2 25c chestnut (shades) 10.00 2.50
RH9a H9a           perf. 12 (1921) 12.50 3.75
RH10 H10 2 35c red 12.50 3.00
RH10a H10a           carmine, perf. 12 (1921) 15.00 4.00
RH11 H11 2 50c deep mauve 18.00 5.00
RH11a H11a           perf. 12 (1921) 25.00 7.50
RH12 H12 2 1p yellow-green 30.00 10.00
RH12a H12a           perf. 12 (1921) 50.00 12.50
RH13 H13 2 2p blue-grey 50.00 20.00
RH13a H13a           perf. 12 (1921) 60.00 25.00
RH14 H14 2 5p red-orange 100.00 30.00
RH14a H14a           perf. 12 (1921) 110.00 40.00


The cancels on subsequent issues, is mainly in the form of a single-lined 'CANCELADO'.
This makes dating them difficult.


1931-5 Thick wove paper. No watermark. Perf. 11¾.

Steve Hiscocks makes reference to an issue of 1931 in his introduction, but instead lists a 1935 issue. Yvert et Tellier lists the issue as 1931-40, with nothing after.
My thanks to Carlos Aristy for pointing out that there are two different types of these. The differences are in the amount of shading on the globe and shading on the thunderbolts.
Detailed comparison suggests that the same plates were used for both types, since they have shared plate characteristics,
but that at some time, presumably around 1935, the plates were re-touched to enhance their contrast.
In places the shading is not completely removed from the thunderbolts. I do not yet know which values exist in which forms.

H22 with lines through T-bolts
Plate characteristics marked in magenta.

H22 with lines through T-bolts cleared
Shading reduced on globe and mostly cleared from thunderbolts. Remaining traces marked in red.

H15 H16 H16a
H15   1c. -  Courtesy of Paul & Les Bottomley H16   5c. - from RL H16a   5c.

H16a retouch H17 H17 10c-die-II
H16ar retouched   5c. - from RL H17   10c Type I. H17r retouched   10c Type I. 10c Type II.

H19 H20 retouched
H19   25c. -  Courtesy of Paul & Les Bottomley H20 retouched   35c. -  from RL

The 35c above shows no traces of lines through the thunderbolts. I think there was no earlier 35c to retouch,
and that the first 35c was created like this, without the lines.

H21 H22
H21   50c blue-grey. H22   50c yellow-green.
Courtesy of treasurings-jewelry on eBay
(click on image for listing).

H22a H22r, retouched
H22a   50c blue-green. H22r retouched   50c green.

The positions of the values in the corners is variable.

RH # Hisc. Type. 1931-5 Description Mint Used
RH15 H15 3 1c pale blue 6.00 4.00
RH15a H15a           'CENTAVOS' in place of 'CENTAVO' (date ?) 30.00 20.00
RH16 H16 3 5c ultramarine 3.75 2.00
RH16a H16a           blue 7.50 2.50
RH16ar -           retouched 7.50 2.50
RH17 H17 3 10c orange Type I 5.00 2.50
RH17r -           retouched 5.00 2.50
RH18 H18 3 10c orange Type II (not retouched) 15.00 10.00
RH19 H19 3 25c rose 15.00 10.00
RH20 H20 3 35c rose-carmine 18.00 12.00
RH20r -           retouched 18.00 12.00
RH21 H21 3 50c blue-grey 20.00 15.00
RH22 - 3 50c yellow-green 20.00 15.00
RH22a -           blue-green 20.00 15.00
RH22r H22           green retouched 20.00 15.00

Hiscocks added the following 2 notes:

Note 1. In the 10c of Type I the '1' in the value '10' has a square serif, while in Type II it has a thin sloping serif.
Note 2. My source seems to suggest that only the 25000 copies of the 1c value printed in 1940 (No 15(a))
                showed the 'CENTAVOS' variation, but I may have misunderstood. There were no 10c values
                printed in that year and the dates of Nos. 17 and 18 are not known.
                It seems likely that other die variations remain to be discovered in this series.

My notes: I suspect that the 1c error of 'CENTAVOS' was the initial issue. It makes no sense to incorrectly change
to plural in 1940, then change back again for all subsequent issues. It is more likely that it was wrong initially and then corrected.

I suspect also that the 10c Types I and II are actually the wrong way around chronologically since Type II matches the style of the 1920
series and Type I matches the style of the 1945 series. I have now seen an example of Type II. It was not retouched.


3 Thunderbolts per corner instead of 2. Thick wove paper. No watermark. Perf. 11¾.

H23 H24 H25
H23   1c. H24   5c. -  Courtesy of Rodney Cork H25   10c.

H26 H27 Unknown stamp
H26   25c. H27   35c. - Courtesy of Rodney Cork RH27r   50c.

H28   50c.
RH27r (on granite paper, but with very few fibres). Perf. 11¾ is a bit of an anomaly.
It closely resembles H27, but the stamp is smaller, particularly in the width.
The printing appears blurry and poor quality. It must have been completely re-drawn.
If not for the cancel, I would think it was an essay or proof, but then the cancel is
also far from normal. Perhaps it was a WWII emergency issue.
It is a pity the cancel does not show the year.
Anyone have more like this ?

RH # Hisc. Type. Description Mint Used
RH23 H23 4 1c light blue 8.00 5.00
RH24 H24 4 5c ultramarine 6.00 4.00
RH25 H25 4 10c orange to red-orange 5.00 3.00
RH26 H26 4 25c red 15.00 10.00
RH27 H27 4 35c carmine-rose 20.00 15.00
RH27r - 4A         re-drawn - -
RH28 H28 4 50c green 20.00 15.00
RH29 H29 4 1p colour ? (may not exist) 60.00 50.00



From this point on, there is a lot of uncertainty of dates and even sequence of sets/partial sets.

There is disagreement between Hiscocks listing and a listing of the German Michel specialised catalogue.
Given that the German catalogue is a lot more complete, I will go according to that, but I suspect there may still be errors/omissions.
It is likely that during World War II, the Dominican republic had difficulty maintaining supplies of Telegraph stamps at a time when
they would likely be in increased demand. There may well have been contingency measures for which the documentation no longer exists.

This will entail extensive re-numbering (again), but it is still not likely to need further changes as there are still
a lot of gaps in the records for these. Some of Hiscocks designations, identified by face value, perforation and sometimes colour do not match his specified type.
I think that Hiscocks had correct information, but simply attributed it to the wrong stamps, having not known about several issues. I will match them as best I can.
Note: I have seen Scott references for some of these, so these are in some Scott catalogue,
but I do not know what the listing is like or how accurate and/or complete it is.
Information on that would be appreciated.


1946? - Type C   New currency, simple numerals in bottom corners. White wove paper. No watermark. Perf. 11¾ or 12½.

RH30 RH31
RH30   1c oro. - Perf. 11¾ RH31   5c oro. - Perf. 12½
derived from Wikimedia Commons.

1946C-25c-RH33 RH34 RH36
RH33   25c oro. - Perf. 12½ - from RL RH34   35c oro. - Perf. 12½ - from RL RH36   1p oro. - Perf. 12½ - courtesy of Dick Keiser

RH # Hisc. Type. Description Mint Used
RH30 - C 1c light blue 5.00 3.00
RH31 - C 5c blue 6.00 4.00
RH32 - C 10c yellow-orange 5.00 3.00
RH33 - C 25c orange-red 15.00 10.00
RH34 - C 35c rose 20.00 15.00
RH35 - C 50c yellow-green 20.00 15.00
RH36 - C 1P blue-green 20.00 15.00


1946? - Type D   Re-drawn type. White wove paper. No watermark. Perf. 12½.
There are some general differences between the first and the re-drawn type.

1946C-25c 1946C-25c
C   The original has more extensive shading
behind the thunderbolts and a large numeral.
D   The redrawn type has less extensive
shading, smaller numerals and the top of the
right ornament shorn off.

Apart from the general differences, the numeral of the 1c has completely changed and at least some shades have changed.
The 25c is unusual in that the original value is large on both types.

1946D-1c 1946D-5c H41
RH37   1c oro. - Perf. 12½ - From RL RH38   5c oro. - Perf. 12½ - From RL
RH39   10c oro. - Perf. 12½

H42 1946D-25c 1946D-50c
RH40   25c oro. - Perf. 12½ RH41   35c oro. - Perf. 12½ - from RL RH42   50c oro. - Perf. 12½ - from RL

The size of the digits in the values on these appears to vary a lot. I would not be surprised if there were two types of some of these.

RH # Hisc. Type. Description Mint Used
RH37 H39? D 1c blue 5.00 3.00
RH38 H40? D 5c dark blue 6.00 4.00
RH39 H41? D 10c red-orange 5.00 3.00
RH40 H42? D 25c carmine-rose 15.00 10.00
RH41 H43? D 35c yellow-brown 20.00 15.00
RH42 H44? D 50c yellow-green 20.00 15.00



There now follows a number of similar designs with values in the corners having 'RD$' and the CENTAVOS ORO values in decimals.
The insulators have been removed from the wires in the top corners (They come back with Type K).

Thick wove paper. No watermark.
Type Ea 1952, Perf. 11¾, Granite paper
Type Eb 1952, Perf. 11¾
Type F 1952, Perf. 11¾
Type G 1953, Perf. 11¾

1952E-10c 1952E-25c 1952F-50c
Type-E   RH43, 10c oro. - Perf. 11¾ - from RL Type-E   RH44, 25c oro. - Perf. 11¾ - from RL Type-F   RH45, 50c oro. - Perf. 11¾ - from RL

1953G-1P 1P
Type-G   RH46, 1P oro. - Perf. 11¾ - from RL Type-G   RH46, 1P oro. - Perf. 11¾

Type-Ea Type-Eb Type-F Type-G
Type-Ea   RD$ 1.7mm high.
Decimal point '.'
Type-Eb   RD$ 1.7mm high.
Comma ','
Type-F   RD$ 2.0mm high.
Single-line frame.
Type-G   RD$ 2.0mm high.
Double-line frame.


RH # Hisc. Type. 1952-53 Description Mint Used
RH43 - E 10c orange (Perf.11¾, 1952) 10.00 5.00
RH44 - E 25c rose-red (Perf. 11¾, 1952) 15.00 15.00
RH45 - F 50c blue-green (Perf. 11¾, 1952) 30.00 20.00
RH46 - G 1p green (shades) (Perf. 11¾, 1953) 35.00 25.00


1966? - Type H   (Hiscocks Type 5), Smaller corner-value characters. Single-line frame around values.
Chalk surfaced paper. No watermark. Various perforations as indicated.
Lith. Printed by Padilla Offset.
According to the Padilla website, the company was founded in Santo Domingo on January 20, 1964 and among other things, printed stamps until 1988.
From this it seems clear that the reported date for these of 1952/3 is in error.
Hiscocks lists similar stamps as being 1966, which sounds more reasonable.

1953H-1c 1953H-5c 1953H-5c
Type-H  RH47, 1c oro. - Perf. 10½ - From RL Type-H   RH48, 5c oro. - Perf. 11 - From RL Type-H   RH48a, 5c oro. - Perf. 12 - From RL

Type-H   RH49a 1P oro. - Perf. 12 x 11¾ - From RL


RH # Hisc. Type. 1966? Description Mint Used
RH47 H30? H 1c new blue (Perf.10½) 10.00 8.00
RH47a H30a H         perf. 12¼ x 12 (1978) 10.00 8.00
RH48 H31 H 5c bright blue (Perf.11) 10.00 8.00
RH48a - H         blue, perf. 12 10.00 8.00
RH49 H36 H 1p blue-green perf. 11 35.00 25.00
RH49a H36a H         perf. (Perf. 12 x 11¾, 1978?) 30.00 30.00
RH50 H37 H 2p colour ? (Perf. 11?) 60.00 50.00
RH51 H38 H 5p colour ? (Perf. 11?) 100.00 80.00



1967? - Type I   Similar to last, but Double-line frame around values. Litho. Printed by Padilla Offset.
Thick wove paper. No watermark. Various perforations as indicated.

1953H-10c 1953I-25c 1953H-25c
Type-I   RH52, 10c oro. - Perf. 10½ - From RL Type-I   RH53a, 25c oro. - Perf. 12 - From RL Type-I   RH53b, 25c oro. - Perf. 12 x 11¾ - From RL

Type-I   RH55a, 50c oro. - Perf. 12 - From RL


RH # Hisc. Type. 1967? Description Mint Used
RH52 H32? I 10c orange (Perf.10½) 10.00 5.00
RH53 H33 I 25c rose-red (Perf.11) 20.00 12.00
RH53a - I 25c rose-red (Perf. 12) 15.00 15.00
RH53b H33a? I         Perf. 12 x 11¾ (1978?) 15.00 15.00
RH54 H34 I 35c carmine ? (Perf. 11) 20.00 15.00
RH55 H35 I 50c green ? (Perf. 11?) 30.00 20.00
RH55a H35a? I         Perf. 12, 1978?) 25.00 25.00



1970? - Type K   (No Type J apparently), This is a high quality and very distinctive production. Perf. 11¾.
Insulators are back in the top corners. Lightning without tips. Value in simple numerals.
Type K,  RH56, 5c oro - From RL

RH # Hisc. Type. 1970? Description Mint Used
RH56 - K 5c oro. Dark blue - -

I have no idea if there are any more values in this design, or even who printed it.


1979-81 - Type L   Another distinctive issue with value in words at the bottom. 'ORO' now dropped on the centavos values. Perf. 13¼ x 13½.
Chalk surfaced paper. Printed by Litografia Ferrua & Hnos, Cxa. of Santo Domingo, founded in January 1976.

1979-5c 1979-10c 1979-35c
Type-L   RH57, 5c. - From RL Type-L   RH58, 10c. - From RL Type-L   RH60, 35c. - From RL

1979-1P 1979-2P 1979-5P
I have added an RH61 on the expectation that there would
be another value between 35c and 1 Peso.
Strangely this is missing the insulators
from the top-right corner.
Type-L   RH62, 1 Peso - From RL Type-L   RH63, 2 Pesos - From RL Type-L   RH64, 5 Pesos - From RL


RH # Hisc. Type. Description Mint Used
RH57 - L 5c dark blue 15.00 15.00
RH58 - L 10c orange 15.00 15.00
RH59 - L 25c rose-red? 20.00 20.00
RH60 - L 35c brown 20.00 20.00
RH61 - L 50c? colour ? 25.00 25.00
RH62 H45? L 1p green (1981) 30.00 20.00
RH63 H46? L 2p light blue(1981) 50.00 40.00
RH64 H47? L 5p orange (1981) 75.00 60.00

My notes: Steve Hiscocks' book was published in 1982 so would not have included any issues after that.
He did note that 'The most recent issue was authorized by Presidential decree in 1981.'
Anyone that has access to subsequent decrees may find further information.

I have had great difficulty in finding information about these issues so assumptions have been made.
Entries where I have not been able to give the colour, may not even exist.
By the same token, there may be items that are not listed.

It is likely that different issues were printed by different companies, but I have no information on most of them.
Further information is invited and would be very welcome.


Service Stamps.

1959 White wove paper. No watermark. Perf. 11¾.

1959 Service 10c   1959 Service 25c
Type 7 courtesy of Carlos Aristy.

RH # Hisc. Type. Description Mint Used
RHS1 S1 7 10c yellow (3,000,000) - -
RHS2 S2 7 25c red (3,000,000) - -

The Scott catalogue illustrates a 25c green in this design with 'ENTREGA / ESPECIAL / CORREOS'
on the right hand side. It is listed as E8, 1956 (August 8, Perf. 11½) under Special Delivery Stamps.

There is almost certainly gaps in this.
If anyone can provide scans to help with this, I am happy to give appropriate acknowledgement.


Postal Tax Stamps.

There are a number of Postal Tax stamps that may have been required for use on telegrams Further information is needed.


For the moment at least, I will list them since it seems very unlikely that they would put this tax only on mail and not on telegrams.

Tax to raise money for the Communications school of the Posts and Telegraphs. Litho.

RA49B RA53 RA58 RA63
1971, Jan 2 1972, Jan 3 1973, Jan 2 1973, Nov 3

RA69 RA78 RA91
1974, Nov 13 1977, Jan 7 1981, Feb

The shields are all about the same colours (Violet-blue, white and red), I will give the colours of the background and (1c) value.
Images from RL

Proof - 1
RH # Date Colours Perf. Size mm. Mint Used
PT1 1971, Jan 2 White, Red 11 17½ x 20½ 0.30 0.25
PT2 1972, Jan 3 Blue, Red 12½ 19 x 22 0.25 0.20
PT3 1973, Jan 2 Red, Dark blue 10½ 19 x 22 0.25 0.20
PT4 1973, Nov 3 Light green , Red 10½ 19 x 22 0.25 0.20
PT5 1974, Nov 13 Yellow-orange, Red 10½ 19 x 22 0.25 0.20
PT6 1977, Jan 7 Lilac, Red 10½ 19 x 22 0.25 0.20
PT7 1981, Feb Light blue , Red 10½ 19 x 22 0.60 0.25

To the left and below are a couple of proofs of these. Images from RL.

Proof - 2


Telegram Seals.

A couple of similar but different seals are known for use on telegrams in the Dominican Republic.


Steve Hiscocks made a start on cataloguing seals of the world in a book he published in 2007.
It was his hope to update it later, but unfortunately that was not to be.
His original book can be viewed at Telegraph Seals: A World Catalogue. There are links from the pages to my updates.

Alternatively you can view the latest page for Dominican Republic.



Comments, criticisms, information or suggestions are always welcome.


Please include the word 'Telegraphs' in the subject.


Last updated 3rd. April 2023

©Copyright Steve Panting 2012/13/14/15/16/17/18/19/20/21/22/23 except where stated.
Permission is hereby granted to copy material for which the copyright is owned by myself, on condition that any data is not altered and this website is given credit.


Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional  Valid CSS!